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    About the journey of Ibn Fadlan to the Viking countries

    Ahmad ibn Fadlan The first one described the Vikings

    - The Abbasids ruled (the Islamic world) for two centuries, extending the Muslim world to Spain in the west, and even the country of India in the east, and the expansion of the Islamic state to parts in modern Russia also, the Islamic world was prosperous, Baghdad was the center of intellectual and cultural world for more From a century ago, with Islamic libraries and schools spread throughout the world, travelers from all over the world were able to identify a land ruled by Muslims through the movement of peoples, merchants and craftsmen, so that many of the tools, books and textiles in the West were associated with the culture of Muslims It was known as (Islamic).
    - In this wonderful cultural and scientific climate, Ahmed bin Fadlan bin Abbas bin Rashid bin Hammad was sent by the Abbasid caliph al-Muqtadir in 1525 to the Kingdom of Volga Bulgars, now Russia.
    Only there were some converts to Islam from the Russians at that time. The Abbasid Caliph decided to send a religious scholar to guide the new converts to the correct teachings of Islam. The main reason for his trip to the region was to guide the King of the Bulgarians in matters of the Islamic religion.

    - No one knows much about (Ibn Fadlan) before that trip, was a writer Arab Muslim and traveler in the tenth century AD has lost a lot of his record, and what was known is that he lived between 921 - 309 Hijri, and was allied with the Abbasid leader Muhammad ibn Salman, who led several military campaigns from Egypt to China, but his journey to the country of the Russians or Vikings was enough to make him one of the most famous Muslim travelers, as well as his invaluable historical document, one of the oldest sources in ancient Russia. Non-Muslims, and the early history of Russia and its people, Ibn Fadlan monitored tuberculosis And their customs, and customs, even describe their forms.

    How did Ibn Fadlan describe the people of the Russians or Vikings? 
    - Left (Ibn Fadlan) Baghdad on 21 June 921 (11 Safar 309 AH). He arrived in the Bulgarians after great hardship on May 12, 922 AH.
    After arriving in Bolgaz, Ibn Fadlan made a trip to Wissu (Perm Kray, speaking from Russia) and recorded his observations on trade between Bulga Bulgarians and local Finnish tribes.
    Ibn Fadlan described the bodies of the Vikings as a detailed description that they have long, perfect bodies described as palm trees, high cheekbones in the face, pale hair, and pink skin. They put a lot of fringes from nails to the neck, such as dark blue or dark green, All armed with a long ax and knife all the time.
    - The women of the Vikings have described them (Ibn Fadlan) that they wear squares of iron or gold or silver over their chests, and the value of the box to the wealth of the husband, and wear rings of neck of gold and silver, and most precious jewelry of beads and green glass, where they traded beads in And pay a heavy price.
    Ibn Fadlan described in detail the funerary practices of the people of the Russians. After he heard that the people concerned in the country were burned after their death, he wanted to make sure of this after hearing about the death of one of them.
    Ibn Fadlan described the funerals of the people of the Russians as continuing for several days, consisting of different rituals. The important dead man was set up to burn him along with some slaves and girls who volunteered to die with their master. The girls are several men, and then a rope is placed around the girl's neck by a woman called (Angel of Death). Then stabs her with a dagger, while two other men choke her with a rope to death, then burn her body with her master on the boat.
    The Vikings were unclean!  
    - Not surprising, is the choice (Ibn Fadlan) describe strange customs and behaviors that differ from Islamic practices and values.
    (Such as the cleanliness and healthy habits of the Russians). In contrast to their physical beauty, Ibn Fadlan described them as extremely deficient in cleanliness, so that they do not wash after intercourse, do not clean themselves after urinating or do not have to wash their hands after eating. As they may be using one pot of water a day is almost free of all that filth, where the maid fills the bathtub every day for her master, which is washed and then spit it or clean the nose, and then after the end of the maid passes the same basin the same water for the rest Family members with the same filth without changing the water and they are already repeating the above! , This description may be considered shameful and disgusting for a Muslim such as Ibn Fadlan. His religion urged him not to use stagnant or unclean water for ablution.
    When Viking is sick
    - When one of the Russians was sick in the area, he was put in his tent away with some bread and water, and people do not come to talk to him or see him, especially if he is a poor man or a slave. If he recovered from his illness they returned to him and if he died they burned his body. Slave, and leave his body to be eaten by dogs and birds of prey.
    - As Ibn Fadlan said in his description of the Russians, that if they caught a thief, they would hang him on a long tree and leave him hanging until his body fell into pieces.
    How does the king of Russia live? 
    - Ibn Fadlan described the king of the Vikings as having 400 men in his palace, sitting around his throne with precious stones, among the most courageous men who die with the king and die for him. Each of them has slave slaves who serve them and work at their leisure. 

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